UNIX is a free operating system is not very popular because it is based on an architecture that has proven to be technically stable. The GNU system was designed to be fully compatible with UNIX. Being compatible with the architecture of UNIX GNU means that the compound of small individual pieces of software, many of which were already available, such as the TeX text editing and graphical X Window system, which could be adapted and reused, while others had to be rewritten.
To ensure that the GNU software to remain free for all users could “run, copy, modify and distribute,” the draft should be released under a license designed to secure these rights while preventing them from further restrictions. The idea is known in English as copyleft – ‘copy-permitida’ (in clear opposition to copyright -‘ right-copia’) and is contained in the GNU General Public License (GPL).
Richard Stallman
In 1985, Stallman created the Free Software Foundation (FSF or Free Software Foundation) to provide logistical support, financial and legal andalusia GNU. The FSF also hired programmers to contribute to GNU, but a substantial portion of the development was (and remains) produced by volunteers. As GNU earned reputation, business stakeholders began to contribute to the development or marketing of products for the GNU and technical support. The most prominent and successful of these was Cygnus Solutions, now part of Red Hat.
In 1990, the GNU system already had a text editor called Emacs, a successful compiler (GCC), and most of the utilities and libraries that make up a typical UNIX operating system. But missing a key component called core (kernel in English).
In the GNU Manifesto, Stallman stated that “there is a nucleus, but many other programs are needed to emulate Unix.” the concerned TRIX, which is a core of calls to remote procedures developed at MIT and whose authors decided that it was freely distributed TRIX was fully compatible with UNIX version 7. In December 1986 and had been working to modify the core. However, the programmers decided that was not originally used because it only worked in “some very complicated and expensive equipment” reason why it should be ported to other architectures before they could be used. Finally, in 1988, decided to build upon the Mach kernel developed at CMU. Initially, the nucleus was named Alix (also called a girlfriend Stallman), but the decision by developer Michael Bushnell was renamed to Hurd. Unfortunately, due to technical and personal conflicts among the original developers, the development of Hurd I stagnating.
In 1991, Linus Torvalds began writing the Linux kernel and decided to distribute it under the GPL. Faster, many programmers Linus joined in the development, working through the Internet and gradually getting to be a Linux kernel compatible with UNIX. In 1992, the Linux kernel was combined with the GNU system, resulting in a free operating system and fully functional. The operating system made by this combination is usually known as “GNU / Linux” or a “Linux distribution” and there are several variants. (See also: Controversy by the name GNU / Linux)
You often find GNU components installed on a UNIX system is not free, instead of the original programs for UNIX. This is because many of the programs written for the GNU project has proved to be of higher quality than their equivalent versions of UNIX. Often, these components are collectively known as “GNU tools.” Many of the GNU programs have also been transported to other operating systems like Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X.

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The Register
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Linux Devices
FUEL Database Monta Vista Linux Whether building a mobile phone, a car navigation system, a package tracking device, or a home entertainment console, developers should be able to software and systems, including an operating system, development tools, and support for libraries, for maximum benefit from their hardware platform and to meet aggressive time-to-market reach.
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